Hygiene and Safety
Concept: Safety and First Aid
We are exposed to various situations and people in our everyday life. It is necessary to stay alert and follow safety rules to avoid mishaps. Also one should know about the basic first aid skills which would play a major role in doing things in correct manner in case of serious injuries.
This concept explanation would introduce the learners to the safety measures to be taken at some common places like inside and outside home, school, playground etc. and the first aid for certain types of injuries.
After going through the concept the learners will be able to:
- Explain the meaning and necessity of safety rules.
- State the importance of Road Safety rules.
- State the meaning of common traffic signs.
- Enlist safety rules at school.
- Describe the measures to be taken to ensure safety at home.
- List the basic things found in a First aid box.
- Accidents can happen anywhere anytime and so we need to follow certain rules that would keep us safe.
- Safety can be defined as a condition of being protected from any danger, accident or injury.
- The safety rules are different for different places we go to in our daily lives.
- Though our house is the most comfortable place, we are still prone to accidents and injuries if we are not careful.
- The safety rules we must follow in our homes are mentioned below
- Do not use sharp objects like nails, blades, nail cutters, knives etc. in the absence of an adult. They may lead to deep cuts.
- Do not walk on wet floors. You may fall and injure or fracture yourself.
- Do not touch electric sockets with wet hands. It may give you an electric shock.
- One should wear slippers while working with any electrical appliance. Children should not use any electrical appliance when the elders are not around.
- Never play with matchsticks and crackers in the absence of elders.
- Stay out of the kitchen. Do not use the stove, oven, or OTG when the elders of the family are not around.
- Keep all emergency contact details handy if required.
- After our home, we spend most of our day at school.
- Let us see the safety rules at school—
- Do not stand on a desk. You may fall and get injured.
- Never indulge in a fight.
- Walk carefully down the staircase. Slipping on the stairs may lead to serious injury.
- Never run in the corridor. You may slip and hurt others while running
- Stand in the queue while boarding or waiting for your school bus. Do not push others in the queue.
- Do not throw chalk, pencils, erasers etc. They may hit others on their eyes or nose and cause injuries.
- We use the roads for going to different places.
- Let us see the safety rules for roads—
- Never walk alone on the streets.
- Use a footpath while walking. Do not walk in the middle of the road.
- Use a zebra crossing for crossing the road.
- Follow the traffic lights and signals.
- Wear the seat belt while travelling in a car. Do not put your head, hands or legs outside the window while travelling.
- Do not play or run on the road.
- Never touch an electric pole on the road.
- Three different traffic lights are used to convey the appropriate signals for controlling traffic on roads.
- The red light indicates stop, the green light indicates go and the yellow light indicates to be ready.
- We go to playgrounds and parks for playing and spending time with our friends and family.
- Let us see the safety rules to be followed there—
- Do not play roughly. You may hurt yourself or somebody else around you.
- Be careful while playing on swings. Wait for your turn and do not push anyone.
- Do not throw stones or any other hard objects here and there
- Wear a helmet and knee caps when required like when you are skating or cycling
- Do not talk to strangers or accept things or eatables from them.
- Do not go near unidentified objects or luggage.
- The immediate help provided at the time of an injury or illness is called first aid
- First aid stabilises a person in need before the proper medical facilities arrive and prevents the probability of further damage.
- Cool the burnt area using cold water and cover it loosely with a cotton cloth.
- Apply Burnol if available.
- Clean the wound using soap and water or with an antiseptic like Dettol.
- Cover the wound with a clean bandage.
- Make the person sit upright and ask them to lean forward.
- Pinch the nose using your thumb and index finger and ask them to breathe with their mouth
- They should not blow their nose for some time.
- Make the injured person lie down and apply an ice pack.
- The first aid box comprises the things which can be used to provide immediate help in case of an injury.
- It contains the following things—
- Thermometer that is used to measure the temperature of an individual.
- Clean cotton and bandage.
- Antiseptic solution that is used to clean a wound.
- Antiseptic ointment that can be applied to the wound, such as Soframycin.
- Some basic medicines for fever, cold, vomiting and diarrhoea.
- Make the person lie on his/ her back on a flat surface.
- Check for their breath.
- Make a fist with your palm and place it in the centre of the chest of the person.
- Push hard and fast about at the rate of 2 pushes per second. Do it 30 times and try giving rescue breaths through the mouth twice
- Repeat this cycle.
- Remember the need for CPR denotes an utter medical emergency therefore before it is started one needs to call for medical help.
Each concept is explained to class 3 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept Safety and First Aid in PDF format.
What is Safety Important?
Safety at Home:
Safety Rules at School:
Traffic Signs and Traffic Lights:
Traffic signs are the signs which are placed on the sides of the road to provide information to people travelling on road. Some of the traffic signs are given below—
|Turn Left||Turn Right||School Ahead|
|No Entry||No Horn||Cycling not allowed|
Safety on Playgrounds and Parks:
Let us see some first aid instructions to be followed in different situations—
b) Cuts and Wounds
c) Nose Bleed:
d) Head Injury:
First Aid Box:
Antibiotic/Antiseptic: The medicines that prevent the growth of infection-causing germs.
Zebra crossing: An area of road painted with broad white stripes, where vehicles stop when the traffic light turns red.
Electrical appliance: A device that works on electricity.
Did You Know?
CPR stands for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. It is a life-saving technique that can be used in case of heart attack and breathing problems. It consists of the following steps—