Stress is a measure of internal forces in a material that come into play due to external forces or loads applied to it. It defines the internal force intensity acting on a certain area inside the body. Stress is relevant in studying the deformation of any material, failure, or resistance against various types of forces.
Stress can be described as the internal force per unit area in materials. Essentially, it refers to the amount of force per unit area within a body. The basic formula for calculating stress is given by:
where:
σ is the stress.
F is the force applied to the material externally
A is the cross-sectional area where the external force will be imposed on.
Units of Stress
In SI units, Stress is measured in Pascal (Pa). One Pascal is defined as One Newton acting on one square meter (N/m²).
Problem 1: Find the stress if a force of 50 N is acting on an area of 5 mm²?
Solution:
Given,
Force F = 50 N,
Area A = 5mm²
Problem 2: An elastic spring is subjected to a force of 1000 N acting over an area of 0.2m². Find the stress?
Solution:
Known,
F = 1000 N
A = 0.2m²
By using the formula,
In physics, stress is the integral representing internal force related to the area over which this force is distributed. Analysis of stress allows scientists and engineers to predict the behavior of materials under different kinds of forces and to build structures strong yet safe.
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