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Adaptations in Plants

Question 1:

What is Phylloclade? Give an Example.
  • A phylloclade is a flattened petiole.
  • The petiole is the part that attaches the leaf to the main branch.
  • Such an adaptation enables the petiole to perform photosynthesis like leaves and store food.


adaptation in cactus


Question 2:

What Kind of Stomata Are Seen in a Cactus?
  • Sunken stomata are found in a cactus.
  • The term 'sunken stomata' stands for the stomatal pores embedded in the leaf's deep tissue layers.
  • Such an adaptation of desert plants reduces water loss due to transpiration as the stomata on the leaf's surface are more exposed to sunlight.
suken stomata


Question 3:

Why Do Cacti Have Succulent Stems?
  • Succulent stems are an adaptation of the cactus plant to survive in the hot climatic conditions of the desert.
  • This succulent stem enables it to perform photosynthesis and store water.
  • Leaves in a cactus plant are either modified to spines or absent.
succulent stem


Question 4:

Write Two Other Names of the Prairie.
  • The areas which are majorly covered with grasslands and have a moderate climate with moderate temperature and rainfall are called prairies.
  • Prairies are also called Pampas and Savannas.
succulent stem


Question 5:

What Are Epiphytes? Why Do They Grow or Climb on Other Plants?
  • The plants which grow on other plants are called epiphytes, such as ferns and orchids. These are not parasitic plants.
  • They are generally found in dense rainforests and do not receive optimum sunlight for performing photosynthesis.
  • Hence, they grow on other trees to receive sunlight and get support.
moss and fern


Question 6:

Why Do Some Rainforest Plants Have Buttress Roots?
  • Some rainforest plants have buttress roots as they grow in shallow soil.
  • These roots support the trees to stand firmly on the top layer of the soil and prevent them from falling.
  • These roots do not grow deeper into the soil and derive nutrients from the top soil.
buttress root


Question 7:

Why Are Tundra Plants Low-Lying and Clumped? State Other Prominent Features of Plants Found in the Tundra.
  • Tundra habitats are characterised by extreme cold conditions for most of the year.
  • Clumping protects them from cold and snow.
  • These plants have shallow roots that allow them to absorb and bloom quickly in the short span of summers. Their leaves are comparatively darker, due to which they can absorb more sunlight.
vegetaton in Tundra


Question 8:

Why Do Water Lilies Have Giant Leaves?
  • The major part of the water lily plant remains submerged in water.
  • Only the leaves float above the water's surface. The leaves are large and so can absorb the maximum amount of sunlight for photosynthesis.
leaves in water lily


Question 9:

Why Do Seedlings Grow Inside the Fruits of Mangrove Plants?
  • Mangroves grow in coastal areas where the majority of the land is submerged in water.
  • This type of condition is not suitable for the germination of seeds. The seed may die due to a lack of oxygen or air because of waterlogging.
  • Due to these factors, mangroves have adapted a unique way of reproduction. The seed falls on the ground after germination so that the root and shoot systems are quickly established, and a new plant starts growing.
  • This phenomenon is also called viviparity.
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