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Celestial Bodies Seasons and Major Landforms of the Earth Class 1 Science

The Earth is covered with both land and water. However, the land does not appear the same in all places. In some, it is elevated, whereas in some, it is depressed. These are called different landforms of Earth.
This concept introduces the students to the various landforms and motions of Earth. Also, the students will get an idea about the changes that occur due to the motion of Earth.

After reading the concept, students will be able to:

  • Enlist various landforms i.e. Mountain, hill, valley, desert, plain and plateau.
  • Differentiate between rotation and revolution of Earth.
  • Mention the climate changes during different seasons on Earth.

Each concept is explained to class 1 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept Seasons and Major Landforms of Earth in PDF format.

  • The Earth is one of the eight planets of the solar system.
  • It is also called the ‘Blue Planet’ as most of the surface is covered with water.
  • Earth supports life due to water and gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide.


Occurrence of Day and Night:

  • Earth moves circularly on its own axis, and this circular movement is called rotation.
  • It takes 24 hours to complete one rotation which makes a full day.
  • The part of the Earth facing the Sun during rotation experiences day, and the other part experiences night.


Occurrence of Seasons:

  • The Earth moves on a circular path around the Sun, and this movement is called revolution.
  • It takes 365 days to complete one revolution, which makes one year.
  • One year comprises five main seasons.
  • The occurrence of seasons depends on the varying distance between the Sun and the Earth, while the Earth revolves around the Sun.
a) Spring Season:
  • It is the first of all the seasons.
  • It lasts for two months, i.e. late February and March.
  • Spring is a pleasant season as the temperature and humidity remain at an optimum level.
  • This season supports the growth of new plants and the blooming of flowers.
  • One should wear cotton clothes in spring.
b) Summer Season:
  • It is the second out of the five seasons.
  • It lasts for three months, i.e. April, May, and June.
  • The summer's temperature is high, making it a hot and uncomfortable season.
  • Our body sweats profusely due to the heat.
  • Hence, cotton and light-coloured clothes are suitable for summer.
c) Monsoon Season:
  • It is the third season.
  • The monsoon lasts for July, August, and the beginning of September.
  • Huge amounts of rainfall and high humidity levels are the features of the monsoons.
  • We need umbrellas, raincoats, and gumboots during the rainy season.
d) Autumn Season:
  • It is the fourth among the five seasons.
  • Autumn lasts for the months of late September, October, and November.
  • Temperature is pleasant during this season.
  • One can observe the shedding of leaves during this season.
e) Winter Season :
  • It is the last season.
  • The winter season lasts for three months, i.e. December, January, and the first half of February.
  • The temperature remains low in the winter, so we feel pretty cold.
  • We wear woollen clothes like sweaters, mufflers, gloves, etc., in winter.

Landforms of the Earth:

The surface of the Earth is not even all around. In some places, the land is elevated, whereas in some, the surface is plain. These are called the different landforms of the Earth.

Some of them are discussed below—

a) Mountain:
  • A mountain is the highest of all the landforms.
  • They are generally higher than the surrounding areas.
  • The pointed top of a mountain is called a mountain peak.
Examples:  The Himalayas in the continent of Asia is a mountain range with many highest peaks like Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, etc.
b) Hill:
  • Hills are also elevated landforms but are not as high as mountains.
  • They are generally covered with green vegetation.
  • Many hilly areas are famous tourist destinations like Kodaikanal, Kufri, Kasol, Nainital, etc.
Examples:   Nilgiri Hills, Annamalai Hills, etc.
c) Valley:
  • Low-lying areas between hills and mountains are called valleys.
  • Some valleys in India are famous for their natural beauty.
Examples:   Kangra Valley, situated in Himachal Pradesh, is the largest valley in India
d) Desert:
  • These are the landforms that receive very less rainfall.
  • Major portions of these areas are covered with sandy soil.
  • In deserts, there is little water available, so very few plants and animals are seen there.
Examples:   Thar desert, Sahara desert, etc.
f) Plain:
  • These are large areas having flat surfaces.
  • They receive a good amount of rainfall and are covered with various trees and plants.
  • Agriculture is mainly carried out in the plains as they have fertile soils.
Examples:   Indo-Gangetic Plain of India.
g) Plateau
  • The elevated landforms with steep sides and a flat top are called plateaus. They are also called tablelands
Examples:   Deccan plateau is the largest plateau in India.

New Words:

Elevated:Something which is raised to a certain height above the ground.

Revolution:It is the movement of the Earth around the Sun in a fixed path called the orbit.

Optimum:Something which is best for a condition or situation.

Did You Know?

  • The Earth is divided into several layers, and we live on the outermost layer.
  • The Earth is surrounded by an envelope of a mixture of gases called the atmosphere.
  • A series of mountains is called a mountain range.
  • The climate in the valleys is pleasant, and many rivers also flow through them. So these landforms are the best living place. So in the early days, many people settled in these valleys like the Indus Valley civilisation that grew near the Indus river.
  • Most big cities are located in the plains because it is easier to build houses, buildings, roads and other structures like New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, etc.
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