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Aquatic Habitat and Special Adaptations

1.How do aquatic animals regulate their body temperature?

  • Aquatic animals are cold-blooded.
  • Their body temperature changes according to the change in the temperature of the surrounding water.
  • Some large fishes like tunas and sharks can maintain body temperature by retaining heat in large muscles of their body.

2.How do aquatic mammals manage to breathe without inhaling water?

Aquatic mammals show physical and behavioural adaptations that enable them to breathe without inhaling water. Some of these adaptations are as follows —

  • The blowhole is located on the top of their head. It allows them to breathe even if the maximum part of their body is inside water.
  • Aquatic mammals take rapid breaths. For example, fin whales can exhale and inhale in less than two seconds.
  • Bottle-nosed dolphins can inhale and exhale in around 0.3 seconds.
  • Some species of dolphins jump out of the water to breathe.
  • Aquatic mammals have a large amount of haemoglobin in their blood.

3.Enlist the adaptations found in a water opossum which help it to survive in aquatic habitat.

The adaptations found in water opossum are as follows—

  • Its body is covered with small dense water repellent fur.
  • Its hind feet are webbed.
  • It has a strong muscular pouch that protects the offspring from water. Water cannot enter the pouch even if the whole body of the mother opossum is inside the water.

4.What is echolocation? Which aquatic animals use it?

  • Echolocation is the phenomenon of locating an object by sensing the sound waves reflected from it.
  • Toothed whales use echolocation to judge an object's distance, movement and size when there is insufficient light.

5.What is basking? How is it helpful to aquatic animals?

  • Some cold-blooded animals are adapted to live inside water and on land.
  • These animals come out in the sun to bask. It heats their bodies and helps them regulate their body temperatures.

6.What are kingsnakes famous for?

  • Kingsnakes are non-venomous snakes but are capable of tolerating venoms.
  • It makes them capable of feeding on highly poisonous snakes like rattlesnakes.

7.Can amphibians regrow their body parts like a lizard? If yes, give examples.

  • Amphibians are capable of regrowing their limbs.
  • They can also regenerate the cells of the body parts like the jaws and retina.
  • Examples of such animals are salamanders and newts.

8.Mention a few physiological adaptations seen in fishes to survive in freezing temperatures.

The following physiological adaptations are seen in fishes which help them survive in cold temperatures—

  • Lowering the rate of metabolic activities as it allows them to consume less energy. Hence, they require less food.
  • Decrease the speed of locomotion so that they can decrease energy consumption.

9.What do you understand by behavioural adaptations?

  • The adaptations seen in some animals which help them to survive in their natural habitats are called behavioural adaptations.
  • These adaptations involve movement of any body part, alarm calls, howling, changing the shape of their bodies etc.
  • Some examples are howling of wolves, wagging of tail by dog, alarm calls by birds, etc.
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