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Components of Food

Components of Food for Class 5 Science

Food helps in the growth and development of our body. To keep ourselves healthy we should maintain a balanced diet. Including different types of food in our diet help us to protect our bodies from various diseases.

After reading the concept, students will be able to:

  • Define nutrients.
  • Name the major nutrients in our food.
  • Recall the examples of protein foods, starchy foods and fatty foods.
  • Know the importance of carbohydrates as energy-giving food and proteins as bodybuilding foods.
  • Know that the vitamins and minerals in food help us to protect from various diseases.

Each concept is explained to class 5 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.

Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept of components of Food provided in PDF format.

Food comprises of different components which are essential for life and health. Each component has a specific role to play. The components of food, also called nutrients, and their sources are explained below—



  • It is the main source of energy for a person’s body.
  • Carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars (glucose) after digestion.
  • These sugars are utilised by the cells of our body for energy.



Examples of food rich in carbohydrates:

Starchy vegetables like potato, parsnip, pumpkin; all fruits; whole grain breads and cereals (wheat, maize and rice), and refined sugar.


  • It is the energy-giving component of food.
  • Fats produce twice the amount of energy produced by carbohydrates.
  • They act as energy reserve for our body when carbohydrates are not available.
  • Fats help in maintaining the temperature of our bodies and provide protection to our vital organs.



Examples of food rich in Fats:

Oil, butter, nuts, avocado, olive, coconut, ghee, cheese, fish, animal meat, dairy products, etc.


  • It is the body-building component of food.
  • Proteins play a vital role in building new cells and repairing the old ones, thereby helping in tissue growth.
  • Children require more amount of protein for proper growth and development.
  • Lack of protein in our body causes many diseases.


Examples of food rich in Proteins:

Meat, fish, cheese, beans, lentils, yogurt, nuts, eggs, and seeds.

Vitamins and Minerals:

  • It is the protective component of food.
  • Vitamin and minerals play a significant role in maintaining the immunity of our body.
  • They protect us from the infections and diseases and also help in the growth and development of our body.


Examples of food rich in Vitamins and Minerals:

All fruits and vegetables are rich source of vitamins and minerals. Some food items like salt and fish are rich source of iodine, an important mineral required by our body.

New Words

Glucose: It is the main type of sugar present in the blood and is the vital source of energy for the body's cells. Glucose is synthesised from the foods we eat. Our body too can make it from other substances. Glucose is carried to the different cells of our body through the bloodstream.

Immunity:It is the body's ability to defend itself from diseases and infections. A good immunity is achieved if one eats food with the right amount of nutrients.


  • Eating fat-rich food is not good for health.
    It is not good when one is not using the energy produced by fats. Consuming fats should be accompanied by some physical activities.
  • Eating too often leads to weight gain.
    Eating too often does not lead to weight gain. Gaining weight depends on the type of food one eats
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