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ORCHIDS The International School

Mendel Experiment

Question 1:

The Chromosomes Are Divided Into Halves at the Time of Formation of Gametes in Individuals. Why Do You Think This Happens?


  • The gametes from two different individuals combine to form a zygote which develops into a new individual.
  • If the chromosomes were not halved at the time of formation of gametes, then the number of chromosomes would be doubled in the new individual.
  • It may lead to genetic mutations, which may result in genetic disorders or the expression of any unknown trait.
  • Hence, nature has made a mechanism for the continuity of the basic gene pattern of a species.


Question 2:

Why Can Only a Pea Plant Be Crossed With Another Pea Plant, Not a Gram Plant?


  • The crossing can be done only between individuals of similar species.
  • The reason is that gametes of individuals belonging to different species are not compatible. Hence, they would not lead to the formation of a zygote or a new individual.
  • The same theory applies to animals too.The same theory applies to animals too.


Question 3:

Define Species.


A group of individuals with the same characteristics that can be crossed together to form fertile offspring is called a species.


Question 4:

What Do You Understand by the Term Hybrid?


An individual produced due to the crossing of two genetically different individuals is called a hybrid.

For example, a mule is obtained by the cross between a donkey and a horse.


Question 5:

What Is a Gene? State the Essential Characteristics of a Gene?


  • Gene is the structural and functional unit of inheritance.
  • It should possess the following characteristics—
    • It should be located in the cells of an individual.
    • It should be able to store genetic information.
    • It should be physically ad chemically stable.
    • It should be able to express itself in an individual.
    • It should be able to undergo gradual changes which would bring necessary changes in a species for its survival.
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