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Modes of Reproduction

1) How Is the Stem Capable of Producing a New Root and Shoot System During the Process of Layering?

  • The stem has nodes. These nodes have cells that can form root and shoot systems if suitable conditions prevail.
  • While layering, these nodes are covered with soil which initiates the development of the root system. Once the root system is established, the shoots start developing

2) What Is Fragmentation? Comment About the Genetic Makeup of Individuals Formed by Fragmentation.

  • Fragmentation is a type of asexual reproduction in which the mature organism splits to form multiple individuals.
  • Asexual reproduction does not involve any gamete formation or fusion.
  • Therefore, the individuals produced are genetically similar.

3) What Is Horticulture? How Is Grafting Useful in Horticulture?

  • The branch of agriculture that deals with the production of flower and fruit-bearing plants are called horticulture.
  • Grafting helps in growing plants with desired properties.

For example, there are around 1500 varieties of mango present in India. It is a result of horticultural practices.

Also, one can see different coloured roses apart from the usual red and pink ones. It is also a result of horticulture.

4) Give an Example of an Organism That Reproduces by Budding Other Than Yeast.

  • Hydra reproduces by budding.
  • It is a simple freshwater animal.

5) How Is Pollen Different From an Ovule?

  • Pollen is a male gamete, whereas ovule is a female gamete.
  • It is covered with a hard external layer made of sporopollenin, whereas the ovule does not have any such layer.
  • Pollen is transferred from anther to stigma, whereas the ovule remains stationary.



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