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Process of Soil Formation and its Components

1.Which type of soil covers the major areas of the northern plains of India?

Alluvial soil covers the major areas of the northern plains as different rivers, and their tributaries flood them.

2.What is pedology?

The scientific study of the origin, nature, distribution and classification of soil is called pedology.

3.What is Kaolinite?

It is a clay-like material that forms due to weathering of feldspars.

4.Which climate is favourable for the process of weathering?

A moist and humid climate increases the rate of weathering, whereas weathering is slowest in a cold and arid climate.

5.How does temperature influence the rate of weathering?

Temperature influences the rate of weathering in the following ways—

  • A rise in temperature increases the rate of chemical reaction, thereby increasing the rate of chemical weathering.
  • The high temperature allows the microbes to grow well, increasing the rate of biological weathering.

6.Does the Sun play a role in the formation of soil? If yes, how?

Due to the Sun’s heat, rocks expand during the day. When the temperature falls at night, they cool down and contract. This contraction leads to the formation of cracks in the rocks, and hence, they become more prone to weathering.

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