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Sun and Moon

Sun and Moon for Class 2 Science

Sun and Moon are two important celestial bodies that we see in the sky. They play an essential role in maintaining a life-supporting atmosphere on Earth.
Both these celestial bodies are different from each other. The Sun is a star, whereas the Moon is the Earth’s natural satellite.
The following concept will introduce the learners to Sun and Moon and will explain their importance and noticeable features.

After reading the concept, students will be able to:

  • State the importance of Sun.
  • Explain how seasons change on Earth.
  • Describe how a shadow is formed.
  • Identify and differentiate Moon Phases.
  • Mention the reason behind the occurrence of Day and Night.

Each concept is explained to class 2 students using descriptions, illustrations, and concept maps. After you go through a concept, assess your learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the end of the page.
Download the worksheets and check your answers with the worksheet solutions for the concept Sun and Moon provided in PDF format.

  • Both the Sun and the Moon are celestial bodies. We see the Sun during the day and the Moon at night.
  • The Sun is a star which is why it emits light, but the Moon is the satellite of the Earth.
  • The Moon travels around the Earth. It shines brightly in the night sky by reflecting the light from the Sun.

The Sun and the Solar System:

  • We live on the planet Earth, a part of the solar system.
  • The Sun and the planets together make the solar system; the planets in the solar system travel around the Sun.
  • They move in specific paths called orbits.

Solar System Planets:

The Sun:

  • The Sun gives us heat and light.
  • All living beings on Earth would not survive without sunlight.
  • The Earth revolves around the Sun, rotating on its axis.

Importance of Sun:

1)It Gives Us Light:

  • The Sun is a fireball that is made up of gases. It is situated in the middle of the solar system.
  • Being a star, it emits light necessary for all living beings.
  • This sunlight is required to maintain a suitable temperature on Earth, and plants use it for photosynthesis.

2)It Gives Us Energy:

  • Energy from the Sun is converted into various forms and made suitable for our use.
  • Plants convert it into chemical energy stored in food which we consume.
  • The solar cell is a device that can convert solar energy into electrical energy.

3)How Season Changes on Earth:

  • The position of the Earth on its axis around the Sun is responsible for the occurrence of various seasons.
  • When the Earth is far from the Sun, we experience winters; when it is close to the Sun, we experience summers.

4) Occurrence of Day and Night:

  • The Earth revolves around the Sun continuously.
  • The part of the Earth which receives sunlight experiences day, whereas the other part experiences night.

5)Wind Currents:

  • Due to the heat produced by the Sun the air gets heated up, leading to wind generation.


  • Shadows are formed throughout the day. An opaque object can produce a shadow in the presence of sunlight.
  • When an object blocks the sunlight, a dark area is formed, which is called a shadow.
  • The length of a shadow depends on the distance between the object and the Sun. Shadow formed is bigger when the distance is more.
  • During morning and evening, the Sun remains on the horizon. The distance between the objects and the Sun is more; hence larger shadows are produced.
  • In the afternoon, the Sun remains overhead, decreasing the distance between the Sun and the objects, making smaller shadows.


  • The Moon is a natural satellite of the Earth.
  • It moves around the Earth in a fixed orbit.
  • It orbits around the Earth in twenty-seven days.
  • The Moon does not have its own light and is not visible during the day.
  • It is visible in the night sky, reflecting light from the Sun.
  • The Moon has no air, and its surface is made up of rocks and dust.

Moon Phases:

  • The Moon continuously changes its shape with time.
  • Phases of the Moon occur because of the change in positions of the Moon and the Earth with respect to the Sun.
  • The parts of the Moon that receive sunlight are visible to us.
  • We usually see four phases of the Moon and they are—full Moon, new Moon, crescent Moon, and quarter Moon.

Importance of the Moon:

  • The Moon is a source of light in the night sky.
  • The Moon causes high and low tides on Earth.

New Words:

Revolution: The movement of the Earth around the Sun.

Orbit: An orbit is a path in space that is followed by natural satellites and planets.

Tides: The rising and falling of the seawater are called tides.


Did You Know?

  • The Sun is entirely made up of two elements: hydrogen and helium.
  • Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed on the Moon.
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