Numbers play a crucial role in our day-to-day life. Knowing the different types of numbers is also essential. Here students will learn about types of numbers in maths in this learning concept. They will learn the definition of all types of numbers with examples.

In this learning concept, the students:

- How many types of numbers with names and examples.
- Can classify the different types of numbers.
- Application of different types of numbers.

Each concept is explained to class 5 maths students using illustrations, examples, and mind maps. Students can assess their learning by solving the two printable worksheets given at the page’s end.

Download the types of numbers worksheet for class 5 and check the solutions for the kinds of numbers provided in PDF format.

**Different Types of Numbers**

We can classify numbers in different groups based on their properties.

All the counting numbers are known as Natural Numbers.

We denote the collection of all the natural numbers by **ℕ**.

All the natural numbers and the number 0 are known as Whole Numbers.

We denote the collection of all the whole numbers by 𝕎.

- All natural numbers are whole numbers. But all whole numbers are not natural numbers, since 0 is a whole number but not a natural number.

There are also some other types of the numbers:

The numbers which have digit 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 at its Ones place are called Even numbers.

(Numbers ends with 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8)

45,782,7003,35,0389246

**Sum of two even numbers is always an even number.**

68 and 72 are even numbers.**Example:**68 + 72 = 140 → 140 is an even number.

**Difference between two even numbers is always an even number.****Example:**98 and 54 are even numbers.98 – 54 = 44 → 44 is an even number.

**Product of two even numbers is always an even number.****Example:**42 and 8 are even numbers.42 × 8 = 336 → 336 is an even number.

**Even numbers are always divisible by 2.****Example:**54, 78, 12, 20, 6 all are even numbers. And all these numbers are divisible by 2. Means when we divide these numbers by 2, we get 0 as remainder.

The numbers which have digit 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 at its Ones place are called Odd numbers.

(Numbers ends with 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9)

2,78** 3** 87,61

**Operations on odd numbers**

**Sum of two odd numbers is always an even number.****Examples:**87 and 25 are odd numbers.87 + 25 = 112 → 112 is an even number.

**Difference between two odd numbers is always an even number.****Examples:**75 and 13 are odd numbers.75 – 13 = 62 → 62 is an even number.

**Product of two odd numbers is always an odd number.****Examples:**15 and 7 are odd numbers.15 × 7 = 105 → 105 is an odd number.

The numbers which are divisible by only 1 and itself are called Prime Numbers.

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, etc. are prime numbers.

2 = 1 × 2 3 = 1 × 3 5 = 1 × 5

7 = 1 × 7 11 = 1 × 11 13 = 1 × 13

We can see that, all the above numbers have only two factors.

- Prime number has only two factors 1 and that number itself.
- Smallest prime number is 2.
- All the prime numbers are odd numbers except 2. 2 is the only even prime number.

The numbers which are divisible by at least one number other than 1 and itself are called Composite Numbers.

4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, etc. are composite numbers.

We can see that, all the above numbers have more than two factors.

- Composite number has more than two factors.
- Smallest composite number is 4.
- 0 and 1 are neither prime nor composite.

The pair of numbers that have only one common factor as 1 are called Co-prime Numbers. These are also called relatively prime numbers.

28 and 57 are co-prime numbers.

Only common factor is 1.

Two prime numbers whose difference is 2 are called twin prime numbers.

(3, 5), (11, 13), (107, 109), etc. are twin prime numbers.

We can see that, in the above examples, difference between prime numbers is 2.

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