Structure and Function of Excretory System - Orchids International Schools
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Excretory System

Concept: Structure and Function of the Excretory System

The organs that are involved in the process of disposing of waste from the body constitute the excretory system. It is a vital organ system of our body as it helps keep the body healthy by eliminating waste products in the form of urine.

Organs of the excretory system and their functions:

1. Kidneys:

  • There are two kidneys inside our bodies, and these are the most important organ of the excretory system.
  • Kidneys are present at either side of our backbone below the chest and are reddish bean-shaped organs.
  • They have numerous renal pyramids (or kidney tissues), and those have nephrons.
  • Nephrons are the structural and functional units of the kidney.


  • The kidneys help filtrate the blood, and that is how they collect all unwanted toxic substances from the blood and form urine.
  • In this way, the blood gets purified.
  • Apart from filtrating toxic substances, the kidneys also help in the reabsorption of water from the urine and send it back to the blood.

2. Ureters:

  • Ureters are narrow tube-like structures that emerge from both the kidneys.
  • The ureters join the urinary bladder.


  •  When kidneys form sufficient urine, the urine moves to the urinary bladder via the ureter.

3. Urinary bladder:

  • It is a pouch or balloon-like organ present in the lower abdomen.
  • The wall of the urinary bladder is made up of muscles.


  •  The urine is stored here temporarily.
  •  When the urinary bladder is filled up, we feel the urge to go to the bathroom.
  •  When we pass urine, the pouch-shaped bladder deflates to expel urine.

4. Urethra:

  • It is a small tube through which urine is excreted from the body.
  • It is the last part of the excretory system.


  •  The urine is excreted from the body through the urethra from the urinary bladder.

New Words:

Toxic: Something which is poisonous or harmful to us.

Expel: To discharge something outside.

Did You Know?

  • The liver is also an excretory organ because it helps to eliminate toxic substances from the blood.
  • The skin is also an excretory organ because it secrets sweat. Our body eliminates excess water, salts, and other toxic elements through sweat.
  • Lungs help in excretion by releasing carbon-di-oxide gas.
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